Black Confederates in Butternut and Gray

The Confederacy’s policy of arming slaves went through fascinating twists and turns. On January 11, 1865, Lee conceded that “military necessity” necissitated arming slaves “without delay.” But bureaucracy does not progress rapidly; President Davis did not sign enabling legislation until March 13 — about three weeks before Lee surrendered at Appomattox, a case of “too little, too late.”

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Did Slavery Cause the Civil War?

Merely asking this question says a lot about the average American’s knowledge of history. The “peculiar institution” was contentious when we were still colonies and part of William Wilberforce’s twenty-year campaign to end England’s international slave trade. After Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act of 1807, President Thomas Jefferson followed suit the following year. Because…

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