Collective Amnesia: American Apartheid, African Americans’ 400 Years in North America, 1619-2019 Chapter One              Racism and White Supremacy: America’s “Original Sin?” Chapter Two              Slavery: America’s “Peculiar Institution” Chapter Three           United States Colored Troops — and Black Confederates Chapter…

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General John “Black Jack” Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Force, acquired his distinctive nickname from serving with the “Buffalo Soldiers” of the 10th Cavalry, which attacked San Juan Hill next to the Rough Riders. He was derided as “Nigger Jack” during his assignment as a tactical officer at West Point, but this was sanitized…

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