American Slavery

Blacks debarking from the White Lion It is commonly believed that the history of African Americans in English North America began in August 1619, when the White Lion, an English privateer based in the Netherlands, traded “20 and Odd Negroes” captured off Mexico from a Portuguese slave ship for food. Because these first blacks were…

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African Americans in American History, 1526-Present

This book is an augmented, comprehensive study of African Americans’ accomplishments since arriving with the Spanish in North America in 1526—nearly a century before the first Anglo-Saxons landed near Jamestown. The book documents their perseverance despite a saga of racism and white supremacy seldom taught in American schools at any level. Seventy-eight photographs, maps, charts,…

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Caste

Not until 2022 will the United States have been free of slavery as long as that execrable institution existed on our soil – it existed in all thirteen colonies until the Northern states gradually began to abolish the institution after we became a country. By the Civil War, slavery no longer existed in the Northern…

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White Supremacy

Slavery, racism, and genocide, America’s horrors, are seldom discussed in the “manifest destiny,” of our “shining beacon on a hill.” It is difficult, nearly impossible, to separate the phenomenon of slavery from racism and white supremacy since both of the latter were used to justify permanent enslavement of African Americans. Nor is this a sectional…

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The Buffalo Soldiers

Six black regular army regiments were authorized by an act of Congress in 1867, two cavalry, the 9th and 10th, and four infantry regiments, the 38th through 41st. About half of the regiments’ strength were veterans of the US Colored Troops and provided most of the regiments’ non-commissioned officers. Two years later, budget cutbacks reduced…

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What Got me Started

Having lived in Virginia for about 51 of my 76 years, I decided to audit a course in Virginia history taught by Professor Warren Hofstra at Shenandoah University nearly eight years ago. I was surprised when Warren emphasized racism, a subject I never thought much about. I should have, because for more than two decades…

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Slavery

Most of us are unaware that slavery originally existed in all thirteen colonies. Slowly, Quakers and other religions determined that the practice was immoral, mirroring a process taking place in England at the same time. An Abolitionist movement emerged which actively promoted the end of the South’s “peculiar institution.” The Underground Railroad helped run-away slaves…

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