Not until 2022 will the United States have been free of slavery as long as that execrable institution existed on our soil – it existed in all thirteen colonies until the Northern states gradually began to abolish the institution after we became a country. By the Civil War, slavery no longer existed in the Northern…

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The Southern account of the Civil War developed almost as soon as the guns went silent. Edward Pollard, wartime editor of the Richmond Examiner, published his 752-page The Lost Cause: A New Southern History of the War of the Confederates in 1866. Considering the technology of the time, this was a virtuoso feat, because the…

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The history of African Americans in English North America began in August 1619, when the White Lion, an English privateer based in the Netherlands, traded “20 and Odd Negroes” captured off Mexico from a Portuguese slave ship for food. Because these first blacks were Christians, probably from Angola, it is possible that they were initially…

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Slavery, racism, and genocide, America’s horrors, are seldom discussed in the “manifest destiny,” of our “shining beacon on a hill.” It is difficult, nearly impossible, to separate the phenomenon of slavery from racism and white supremacy since both of the latter were used to justify permanent enslavement of African Americans. Nor is this a sectional…

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In its June 2020 issue, Time magazine observed: “the slightest and smallest level of alleged misconduct or suspicious behavior is suitable to justify the police killer’s unreasonable fear.” Often, the killing of unarmed blacks is justified by describing past misconduct. Many believe that victims of summary execution somehow deserve their fate. Policing is a dangerous…

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Six men hung in Georgia, 1919. American justice was distorted by hate and prejudice for generations, and not only in the South, although it most frequently occurred south of the Mason Dixon line. Ofter This is another legacy of white supremacy and racism, portraying blacks as ignorant, sub-human brutes, a mythology that led to lynching and…

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Continuing to research and rewrite my forthcoming book, African Americans in American History, I found a lot more material on the topic of black Confederate soldiers. So much, in fact,  that I made the topic a separate chapter instead of an add-on to US Colored Troops. The Confederates clearly recognized the efficacy of the 200,000…

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Six black regular army regiments were authorized by an act of Congress in 1867, two cavalry, the 9th and 10th, and four infantry regiments, the 38th through 41st. About half of the regiments’ strength were veterans of the US Colored Troops and provided most of the regiments’ non-commissioned officers. Two years later, budget cutbacks reduced…

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African Americans pre-dated the arrival of Anglo-Saxons in North America. Black soldiers made a substantial contribution to “taming” the West, in Cuba, and suppression the insurrection in the Philippines

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